(Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum

Anne Applebaum s Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1945 1956 is a thoroughly researched and rewarding read Although I approached the book with some skepticism due to the author s association with prominent neoconservative organizations The Legatum Institute and the American Enterprise Institute and her husband s position as Foreign Minister of Poland he is an AEI alumnus too it was detailed and fair if vehemently anti Russian I noted with interest in the acknowledgements section at the book s end a thank ou to both the Scaife Foundations AND the National Endowment for the Humanities Hmmm If Anne Applebaum had written Iron Curtain at the height of the revisionist 70s and 80s she d be dismissed as an acolyte of Richard Pipes After two decades of opened files in the former Soviet Union and Eastern European satellite states however we know that the traditionalist Western view of High Stalinism was or less correct Even giving post war socialist striving its due the Stalinist form of Central European consolidation was almost as depraved as the commie hunters of the 50s claimed The problem was not so much the brutality of late period Stalinism plenty of people died to be sure but only a shadow of the number during the famines and Great Terror of the 1930s The problem was the constant lying to self and others in trying to believe in the type of state that could never really exist under centrally planned socialism of the Stalinist variety Applebaum is at her best when she gives us the same kind of review of daily life under 1950s Eastern Europe Stalinism that Orlando Figes gave us in The Whisperers his excellent study of the USSR in the 1930s There is a direct sense of clinging to the false as a desperate attempt to find something to believe in after the utter devastation of society in World War 2 And the supporters of centralist Stalinism appear at their most devious not in crushing political opponents or in controlling the workplace but in their fervent desire to crush any type of civil society whatsoever even chess clubs and YMCA outlets This is why Stalinism was so similar to Falangist fascism All supporting the state nothing against the state nothing outside the state is one of the most depraved concepts of modern government developed in the past century The notion reaches its most absurd levels when Applebaum relays the lyrics to The Party is Always Right but of course there is no joke intended in this particular song Still the book can drag a bit in those cultural life reviews There are times in the critiues of modern art formalism and descriptions of Homo Sovieticus when the attention can wander In general however Applebaum is a great writer who makes her analyses come alive My bigger complaint is that the book cannot be comprehensive because it chooses to focus on Poland East Germany and Hungary It s understandable that Applebaum wanted to make her subject manageable Putting aside Yugoslavia may have been necessary because Tito was such a special case But Romania and Bulgaria are unknowns to many in the West and a better study of their cultural specifics would have been nice The bigger loss though is Czechoslovakia The brutal nature of the 1948 coup and the special circumstances leading up to the 1968 Czech Spring virtually demand a better coverage of that nation Other elements of the book seem hurried Applebaum spends plenty of time in the 18 months of displaced hell following World War 2 which is very worthy considering the paucity of research in that period But why breeze over the show trials of 1949 50 so uickly Why spend so little time looking into the bizarre role played by US citizen Noel Field A little balance in what was and was not covered would have made this a better book Still this is a decent analysis about a terrible time in history that is not studied carefully and seriously enough The holes in Applebaum s study might justify a seuel book to study the Southern European states of Romania Bulgaria and Yugoslavia The best work of modern history I have ever read says A N Wilson on the cover The cover praise is gushing as we get masterpiece from Oliver Kamm and at last the story can be told by Orlando Figes I *have to say that I have come out of this book extremely *to say that I have come out of this book extremely and for many reasons The best work of modern history is as ridiculous a comment and as to Masterpiece Evans Reich trilogy just kills this book for the sheer brilliance of the telling of the subject as opposed to a limited focus on 3 nations and a constant dose of wide eyed polemic mixed in As to the story being finaly being told the story has been told countless times and if it was all new why the extensive bibliography There is NO DENYING THE APPALLING STRUGGLES WITH TOTALITARIAN COMMUNIST REGIMES denying the appalling struggles with totalitarian communist regimes the masses were forced to endure in the eastern parts of Europe after the fall of Nazi Germany The vast humanity that had endured Nazi suffering deserved better but that does not make this book with its wide eyed and bushy tailed presentation any better Lets take the chapter on Ethnic Cleansing as an example Russian soldiers treated the German civilians appallingly no doubt but the author seems shocked at times Why Had not the Germans just committed atrocity after atrocity on Russian civilians not only with the gun but by starvation and many other means Did the author expect some charity How naive The many examples of badly written prose is for me rather astonishing Lets take this statement about travel According to the Interior Ministry statistics only 9360 crossed the border for any reason in 1951 of whom only 1980 were travelling to capitalist countries Well es We are reading about a country ravished by WW2 that not too far forward is a poverty stricken totalitarian regime with controls over the populace But what we get a couple of aghast onlys as if the then Polish government was going to conform to modern western freedom of travel The final chapter Revolutions finishes with a polemic on everyone being wrong This is not a writing on history at all and is out of place as to what the chapter should have been about And as to the Epilogue I just wonder the point I want history not another polemic aimed at a modern reader who still seems to think that there is a red menace out there I mean do others who have praised this book really in their heart feel that the eastern European countries were particularly liberal prior to Nazi and Communist takeovers after 1939 as their heart feel that the eastern European countries were particularly liberal prior to Nazi and Communist takeovers after 1939 as by the author Free trade does not by itself make Poland to use as an example a liberal nation prior to 1939 This book is as big a failure as I have read in a long time The gushing praise just had me salivating but I am left very wanting There must be better books on this subject than this a book that to me is just a journalistic pursuit aimed at making a western audience reading the Murdoch Press and watching Fox News somehow think that their very way of life is till under attack Page 174 my book Polish radio announcer Andrzej Zalewski One winter day I stupidly wrote in the text of the script There is a cold atmospheric front approaching us from Russia The broadcaster read it aloud in the morning they phoned me Go and see the director I went to see the director and was ushered in right away Zalewski he told me I thought ou were intelligent From now on remember only warm good things come from the East It didn t seem funny at the timeThis book focuses primarily on East Germany Poland and Hungary The other Iron Curtain countries get only a passing glanceThe author Anne Applebaum clearly points out how these countries were in a complete apocalypse at the ending of the Second World War in Europe Poland had its intellectual elite elim. In the long awaited follow up to her Pulitzer Prize winning Gulag acclaimed journalist Anne Applebaum delivers a groundbreaking history of how Communism took over Eastern Europe after World War II and transformed in frightening fashion the individuals who came under its swayAt the end of World War II the Soviet Union to its surprise and delight found itself in control of a huge swath of territory in Easte.

Anne Applebaum å 8 Free download

Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956
Great Short Stories of Detection Mystery and Horror Karsh Portfolio
Inated No education was provided for the Polish population during the long German Un Nol River Falls years of brutal occupation The climb back to a semblance of civilized society was to be a long one and it was to be under Stalin s terms There was an ethnic cleansing of Poles Ukrainians and Germans In Poland and Ukraine there were roving armed groups intent on asserting their independence from either Poland or RussiaPage 124 In all some 12 million Germans left Eastern Europe in the postwar period and settled in both East and West GermanyPage 133 By 1950 not much remained of multi ethnic Eastern Europe In the end most deported Germans went to Germany Poles went to Poland and Ukrainians could go to Soviet UkraineAny opposition was repressed with thousands of political prisoners and a huge police force supervised by Russia s NKVD with thousands of informers No one knew who one could trust It was much like the novels of George Orwell Animal Farm and 1984 I felt the writing in the latter half of the book became belaboured and tedious For example the author goes on about conformity but the same could be said of western countries in the 1950 s with the McCarthy era and the ostracism of the new Beat generation She also dwells over many pages on the sloganeering of workers for higher production outputs which reminded me of the reward plaues that I keep seeing in fast food and coffee franchises for the employee of the month She was on firmer ground when providing examples of the severe punishments like imprisonment for those who transgressed Also she describes the extensive privileges given to those at the upper government echelonsThere were times when I felt the author was disappointed that the Western powers did not declare war on the Soviet Union in May 1945 to prevent the assimilation of Eastern Europe She is somewhat jaded about some of the accomplishments attained in educational levels in Eastern Europe which were abysmal in 1945Nevertheless we do see the repression and subservience that existed to Moscow When I was a kid in Soviet school they told us Russian troops brought peace and prosperity to Eastern Europe countries and I believed in it but what 13 14ears old in totalitarian society could know Later I read lot of stuff and now I see picture much clearer we brought misery and raping to these countries First our soldiers not all of them but enough to discard it as one off raped women in all countries they liberated Then came dangerous predators politicians They raped not a single woman but whole country or block of countries at once It s done on much deeper level that just physical humiliation political fate religions freedom of expression They molested kids in Jane and Julio youth organization indoctrinated people with love to Big Brother If people didn t like it they put those in labor camps including Russian Gulag I knew about Hungarian 1956 and Prague 1968 but this book talk about other events as well Please doourself a favor read this book to understand how totalitarian regime works Anne Applebaum is a journalist and author of Gulag A History for which she won the Pulitzer Prize in 2004 She has written for many papers and publications and was a foreign correspondent for The Economist in the late 1980 s when she covered the societal and political changes happening in Eastern Europe She is married to Rados aw Sikorski Poland s former minister of foreign affairs and is now a Polish citizen Iron Curtain is a well researched and important book which seeks to answer the uestion what happened in central and Eastern Europe immediately after World War 2 How did a number of countries all ethnically and culturally very different adopt the same foreign ideology How did communist parties never very popular before the war suddenly found themselves in position of unchallenged powerThe answer lies in the overwhelming presence of the Red Army As the soldiers marched towards Berlin the rest of the allies became aware that there would be no stopping them from eventually dominating the entire part of the continent east of the city Although post war agreements allowed only for free and unfettered elections they were uickly proven to be worthless A well researched book but ultimately a major disappointment The author is connected with the neoconservative Legatum Institute as well as high ranking elements in the Polish establishment so if ou Are Looking For A Balanced looking for a balanced of Europe behind the Iron Curtain ou shouldn t look for it here Problems include a narrow focus that concentrates only on the immediate postwar period as well as just three countries East Germany Hungary and Poland a failure to acknowledge that barmy as the communist system in central Europe was its instigators weren t all cynical sociopaths like Stalin and that some of them were making an honest attempt to rectify society s ineualities a too cosy appraisal of the regimes opposing forces fine in the case of dissidents and intellectuals but not in the case of the highly conservative clergy nor the freemasons both are portrayed as angelic forces and not since Boycey in Only Fools and Horses have the latter received such rave reviews the shooting down of easy targets such as Soviet realist architecture has she ever been to Milton Keynes or Sarcelles societal malfunction should we regard Detroit or Kinshasa as typical of capitalism per se and the lack of freedom what about Guantanamo Bay little mention of the catastrophic shock therapy that followed on from the fall of the Berlin Wall outside the scope of the book perhaps but it needs mentioning to put things in perspectiveThe sub Hayekian hectoring uickly becomes tiring and one suspects that some gullible publisher was strong armed into releasing this as a trade book when what we need is an even handed view of the entire 40 ears of Communism in the Soviet client states of Eastern Europe The Hand of History There are not many jokes in Europe The Hand of History There are not many jokes in Actually that s not uite true A case could be made that communism itself was a massive joke except those living under it dared not laugh or laugh only at their personal peril All humour in what used to be called the Eastern Bloc was inevitably of a subversive nature For as George Orwell wrote a thing is funny when it upsets the established order that every joke is a tiny revolution The revolutionaries did not want revolution they wanted total conformity Have ou ever been in a situation or a place say a church or a library where something struck Mille et un champignons you as funny It may not be all that funny on later reflection but just try to contain a laugh when it wants to explode I ve been reading Anne Applebaum s masterly Iron Curtain the Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 56 a follow up to her eually masterly Gulag a History of the Soviet Camps There are not many laughs in thatou may think But Faire l'amour de manire divine you are wrong I m not at all sure I could have survived the dull curtain of monotony that descended on Eastern Europe after 1945 for one simple reason I have an acute sense of humour You see I would have been overcome with explosive fits of laughter over the shear earnest pettiness of it all Imagine going in to a bookshop and seeing children s titles like Six Year Old Bronek and the Six Year Plan You leave uickly only to haveour senses assaulted by a propaganda hoarding There it is just across the street boldly announcing Every artificially inseminated pig is a blow to capitalist imperialism Your lips are "tightly closed the laughter is escaping like steam under pressure You don t want to be "closed the laughter is escaping like steam under pressure You don t want to be so ou turn away to look at the latest civic art only to be confronted by a painting entitled The technology and organisation of cattle slaughter Was the Berlin Wall really brought down I wonder by a great outb. Rn Europe Stalin and his secret police set out to convert a dozen radically different countries to Communism a completely new political and moral system In Iron Curtain Pulitzer Prize winning journalist Anne Applebaum describes how the Communist regimes of Eastern Europe were created and what daily life was like once they were complete She draws on newly opened East European archives interviews and person. Urst of laughter Sorry I should write the Anti Fascist Protection Wall to give its official title Yes there is humour in the story but the bigger picture is altogether bleak In picturing the history of communism in Eastern Europe I see a fa ade eaten hollow from within by termites In the end the whole thing simply collapsed under its inherent contradictions to borrow a piece of cherished Marxist terminology Let s be absolutely clear about one thing for people in places like Poland particularly Poland the Second World War did not end in 1945 The immediate joy of liberation simply gave way to an understanding that a new occupation had taken hold one that was to last for decades The expression Iron Curtain did not originate with Winston Churchill but it was he who was to give it greatest resonance in speech delivered in Fulton Missouri in March 1946 From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe Warsaw Berlin Prague Vienna Budapest Belgrade Bucharest and Sofia all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere and all are subject in one form or another not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow Applebaum sets out her stall uickly She refuses to entertain the revisionist view that the imposition of communism throughout Central and Eastern Europe after 1945 was a countermove to American policy at the start of what was to become the Cold War No the importation of a Soviet style system was a deliberate ideological move all part of the greater revolutionary good As she uite rightly says there was a template already in place for this in the Soviet occupation of Estonia Latvia and Lithuania in 1940 states that had been consigned to Stalin under the terms of the Nazi Soviet Pact So far as Stalin was concerned there were also foreign policy advantages The new communist satrapies acted as a buffer zone in a period of growing East West tension More specifically an independent Poland would clearly have been a major political embarrassment to the Soviets doubtless demanding the return of those territories in the east of the country seized by Stalin in 1939 as part of his satanic bargain with Hitler For Poland it was a bleak choice between extinction and communism As always the road to hell begins with noble intentions Alongside the cynical little Stalins who had spent ears licking the boots of their Master in Moscow there were genuine idealists people who believed in the lie They came as self perceived liberators ready to free the working classes from capitalist exploitation They expected to be welcomed in their establishment of a brave new world Unfortunately for them it had real people in it The truth came uickly the truth came in Poland In 1946 the people decisively rejected a communist backed referendum Perplexed the government rejected the people concluding that they had acted in some kind of incomprehensible spirit of resistance and complete ignorance Here I immediately fast forwarded to the events of June 1953 in East Berlin the first serious uprising against imposed communist rule Bertolt Brecht the playwright had hitherto served as the German Democratic Republic s tame intellectual and court poet But even he had enough offering comment on the worker state s suppression of the workers in his poem The Solution After the uprising of the 17th of JuneThe Secretary of the Writers UnionHad leaflets distributed in the StalinalleeStating that the peopleHad forfeited the confidence of the governmentAnd could win it back onlyBy redoubled efforts Would it not be easierIn that case for the governmentTo dissolve the peopleAnd elect another That would seem to serve as the very definition of the so called People s Democracies In the place of real people came a hollow cardboard illusion Applebaum is splendid in her treatment of the high politics in her description of the appalling stooges who reproduced the bleak apparatus of Stalinism in their respective spheres of influence personality cults purges camps bogus trials the whole depressing paraphernalia She also offers a description of the corrosive effects of communism on everyday life Any kind of personal or free expression even in the most minor forms of liberty was excised Popular consciousness was filled with the state and nothing but the state One small example serves here The scout movement was banned as were all other private societies In 1950 in Poland a seventeen ear old girl met with friends from a former troop seventeen ear old girl met with friends from a former troop were arrested and given jail sentences of two to five ears Iron Curtain is a splendid piece of work witty perceptive thoroughly researched and superbly written I was impressed enough to consider it the most important book I ve read this ear one that will make a lasting contribution to our understanding of this period in history a tragedy on which the final curtain has thankfully fallen My main criticism concerns the title It s not a comprehensive history of Eastern Europe between 1944 and 1956 as the title misleadingly suggests but principally a history of three countries behind the Curtain Poland East Germany and Hungary There is next to nothing on places like Romania where the whole communist experiment eventually descended to the most degenerate form Don t let that bother ou The history we are given is first class a journey into a heart of darkness Iron Curtain is a book that is scholarly and accessible free of all condescension while losing nothing in the telling It s a commendable achievement I felt both exhilarated at deflated at the end especially after reading about the brutal suppression of the 1956 anti communist rising in Hungary which proved to all who were not blind that the liberation of 1945 was nothing but a lie I was exhilarated by the narrative and deflated by the fate of some of our fellow Europeans to whom history had dealt such a poor hand Shortest ReviewRead Ashes and Diamonds instead Short ReviewThis is a book which in its final pages like a bad report or essay seeks to assert new ideas and with them the books own value and importance which were not in evidence in the bulk of the text during which The Simpsons provide the essential vocabulary of reader response with Meh and Duh depending on which blatantly obvious point the author highlights Longer ReviewMy overwhelming response to this book is don t bother Life we are told is short and its pace fast as a reader one can admit there is an argument that can be made that given the finite number of books that one will read one has good reason to be careful of what one chooses to read And I can see no way in which this book would make the cut view spoiler unless one found oneself marooned on an island with only one or Two Books Available Hide Spoiler books available hide spoiler well researched book I grew up in a Siberian closed town which was build by Gulag prisoners before I was born i spent my childhood behind three rows of barbed wires My small town produced refined plutonium spy satellites and engines for intercontinental ballistic missiles In nearly 30 ears I lived in the USSR before moving to the USA I had no idea what was happening outside USSR not only in capitalist West but even in socialist East We just never had a chance to see the world until Soviet Union collapsed and suddenly everything become possible It is sad that the responsibility for rape of Eastern Europe by Stalin s Soviet Union is not acknowledged by current Russian government as it was by Germany Without such a moral statement there will be no reconciliation. Al accounts translated for the first time to portray in devastating detail the dilemmas faced by millions of individuals trying to adjust to a way of life that challenged their every belief and took away everything they had accumulated Today the Soviet Bloc is a lost civilization one whose cruelty paranoia bizarre morality and strange aesthetics Applebaum captures in the electrifying pages of Iron Curtain. ,


10 thoughts on “(Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum

  1. says: (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum

    (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum Insightful well researched book I grew up in a Siberian closed town which was build by Gulag prisoners before I was born i spent my childhood behind three rows of barbed wires My small town produced refined plutonium spy satellites and engines for intercontinental ballistic missiles In nearly 30 years I lived in the USSR before moving to t

  2. says: (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum

    Characters Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956 Free download ✓ eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF å Anne Applebaum Anne Applebaum å 8 Free download Shortest ReviewRead Ashes and Diamonds instead Short ReviewThis is a book which in its final pages like a bad report or essay seeks to assert new ideas and with them the books own value and importance which were not in evidence in the bulk of the text during which The Simpsons provide the essential vocabulary of reader response with Meh and D

  3. says: (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum

    Characters Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956 (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum Anne Applebaum å 8 Free download The Hand of History There are not many jokes in communism Actually that’s not uite true A case could be made that commu

  4. says: Characters Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956 Anne Applebaum å 8 Free download (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum

    (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum Anne Applebaum å 8 Free download Characters Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956 A well researched book but ultimately a major disappointment The author is connected with the neoconservative Legatum Institute as well as high ranking elements in the Polish establishment so if you are looking for a balanced account of Europe behind the Iron Curtain you shouldn't look for it here Problems include a narrow focus

  5. says: (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum

    Characters Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956 (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum Free download ✓ eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF å Anne Applebaum Anne Applebaum is a journalist and author of Gulag A History for which she won the Pulitzer Prize in 2004 She has written for many papers and publications and was a foreign correspondent for The Economist in the late 1980's

  6. says: Free download ✓ eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF å Anne Applebaum (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum

    (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum When I was a kid in Soviet school they told us Russian troops brought peace and prosperity to Eastern Europe countries and I believed in it but what 13 14 years old in totalitarian society could know Later I read lot of stuff and now I see picture much clearer we brought misery and raping to these countries First our soldiers not all of them but enough to discard it as one off raped women in all countries they liberated Then came

  7. says: Anne Applebaum å 8 Free download Free download ✓ eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF å Anne Applebaum (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum

    Characters Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956 (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum Page 174 my book Polish radio announcer Andrzej Zalewski One winter day I stupidly wrote in the text of the script “There is a cold atmospheric front approaching us from Russia” The broadcaster read it aloud in the morning they phoned me “Go and see the director” I went to see the director and was ushered in right away

  8. says: (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum Free download ✓ eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF å Anne Applebaum

    (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum The best work of modern history I have ever read says A N Wilson on the cover The cover praise is gushing as we get masterpiece from Oliver Kamm and at last the story can be told by Orlando Figes I have to say that I have come out of this bo

  9. says: (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum

    (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum If Anne Applebaum had written 'Iron Curtain' at the height of the revisionist '70s and '80s she'd be dismissed as an acolyte

  10. says: Characters Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956 (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum Anne Applebaum å 8 Free download

    Free download ✓ eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF å Anne Applebaum (Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944 1956) PDF READ Ï Anne Applebaum Anne Applebaum å 8 Free download Anne Applebaum's Iron Curtain The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1945 1956 is a thoroughly researched and rewarding read Although I approached the book with some skepticism due to the author's association with prominent neoconservative organizations The Legatum Institute and the American Enterprise Institute and her husband's position as Foreign Minister of Poland he is an AEI alumnus too it was detailed and fair if vehemently anti

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